Senin, 20 Juli 2009

Pitirim Sorokin


Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Rusia: Питирим Александрович Сорокин) (21 Januari, 1889 - Februari 11, 1968) adalah seorang Rusia-Amerika sosiolog. Academic and political activist in Russia, he emigrated from Russia to the United States in 1923. Akademis dan aktivis politik di Rusia, ia berhijrah dari Rusia ke Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1923. He founded the Department of Sociology at Harvard University . Ia mendirikan Departemen Sosiologi di Harvard University. Like CW Mills , he was a vocal opponent of Talcott Parsons ' theories. Seperti CW Mills, dia adalah lawan yang vokal Talcott Parsons' teori. He is best known for his contributions to the social cycle theory . Dia adalah yang terbaik dikenal untuk kontribusi kepada teori siklus sosial.
Biografi

Supporting himself as artisan and clerk, he was able to study at the University of St. Petersburg and to teach sociology. Mendukung dirinya sebagai Artisan dan kerani, ia dapat belajar di University of St Petersburg dan mengajar sosiologi. Sorokin was imprisoned three times by the czarist regime of Russian Empire ; during the Russian Revolution he was a member of Alexander Kerensky 's Russian Provisional Government . Sorokin telah dipenjarakan tiga kali oleh rezim czarist dari Rusia Empire; selama Revolusi Rusia dia adalah seorang anggota Alexander Kerensky 's Rusia Provisional Pemerintah. After the October Revolution he engaged in anti- Communist activities, for which he was condemned to death by the victorious Communist government; the sentence was commuted to exile . Setelah Revolusi Oktober dia terlibat dalam anti-Komunis kegiatan yang ia dikutuk sampai mati oleh pemerintah komunis yang menang; kalimat itu commuted ke pengasingan. He emigrated in 1923 to the United States and was naturalized in 1930. Dia berhijrah pada tahun 1923 ke Amerika Serikat dan telah naturalized tahun 1930. Sorokin was professor of sociology at the University of Minnesota (1924–30) and at Harvard University (1930–55), where he founded the Department of Sociology. Sorokin adalah profesor dari sosiologi di University of Minnesota (1924-30) dan di Harvard University (1930-55), di mana ia mendirikan Departemen Sosiologi.

Karya

His writings cover the breadth of sociology; his controversial theories of social process and of the historical typology of cultures are expounded in Social and Cultural Dynamics (4 vol., 1937–41; rev. and abridged ed. 1957) and many other works. Tulisannya mencakup berbagai sosiologi; kontroversial itu teori proses sosial dan sejarah budaya yang tipologi expounded di Dinamika Sosial dan Budaya (4 vol., 1937-41; rev. Ringkasan dan ed. 1957) dan banyak karya lainnya. He was also interested in social stratification , the history of sociological theory , and altruistic behavior . Dia juga tertarik dalam stratifikasi sosial, maka sejarah sosiologis teori, dan perilaku altruistis.

Sorokin is author of books such as The crisis of our age and Power and morality , but his magnum opus is Social and Cultural Dynamics (1937-1941). Sorokin adalah penulis buku seperti The krisis kami usia dan Power dan moralitas, namun ia magnum opus adalah Dinamika Sosial dan Budaya (1937-1941). His unorthodox theories contributed to the social cycle theory and inspired (or alienated) many sociologists. Teori nya tdk lazim kontribusi kepada teori siklus sosial dan terinspirasi (atau alienated) sociologists banyak.

In his Social and Cultural Dynamics he classified societies according to their 'cultural mentality', which can be ideational (reality is spiritual), sensate (reality is material), or idealistic (a synthesis of the two). Di Dinamika Sosial Budaya dan dia tergolong masyarakat sesuai dengan 'mentalitas budaya', yang dapat ideational (realitas adalah rohani), merasa (kenyataannya bahan), atau idealistis (sebuah sintesis dari dua). He suggested that major civilizations evolve through these three in turn: ideational, idealistic, sensate. Dia menyarankan agar besar peradaban berkembang melalui tiga pada gilirannya: ideational, idealistis, merasa. Each of these phases of cultural development not only seeks to describe the nature of reality, but also stipulates the nature of human needs and goals to be satisfied, the extent to which they should be satisfied, and the methods of satisfaction. Setiap tahapan pembangunan kebudayaan bukan hanya berusaha untuk menjelaskan sifat dari kenyataan, tetapi juga menegaskan sifat manusia kebutuhan dan tujuan yang akan puas, di mana mereka harus puas, dan metode kepuasan. Sorokin has interpreted the contemporary Western civilisation as a sensate civilisation dedicated to technological progress and prophesied its fall into decadence and the emergence of a new ideational or idealistic era. Sorokin telah diinterpretasikan kontemporer peradaban Barat sebagai peradaban merasa didedikasikan untuk kemajuan teknologi dan dinubuatkan yang jatuh ke dalam keadaan mundur dan munculnya baru ideational atau idealistis era.

Sorokin dari kertas yang saat ini dipegang oleh Universitas Saskatchewan di Saskatoon, Kanada yang tersedia bagi masyarakat.


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